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原创文章 》怎样在枯燥的生活中发现思维的火花

怎样在枯燥的生活中发现思维的火花

  你能一眼看出这个场景是什么吗?这是一个经过专门改进的,给儿童用的核磁共振仪。这种嗡嗡响的大型医疗仪器,总是会把孩子吓得哇哇哭——为了应对这一问题,一个团队把冷冰冰的核磁共振仪变成了一艘海盗船。这个团队来自于斯坦福大学的D-school,他们致力于用一种叫做设计思维的工具接地气地解决具体问题——把“创新”这一心理机制和我们生活中的大小烦恼,进行真正可行的融合。本期《每日谈心》,我们就来跟斯坦福大学创意实验室主任,设计思维全球化倡导者——Michael Sturtz一起聊一聊“创新”这个话题。

  叶壮:在设计思维的五大模块中,第一个就是“同理心”——这也是一个经常出现在心理咨询和心理治疗中的词汇。的确,只有真正了解那些有需求的人的真实感受,才能做出真正优秀的设计成果。我们该如何在创新的过程中使用与培养同理心呢?

  Michael:嗯,你知道,设计思维是一种个性化的思维方式,。但很明显,当你真正在设计产品时这种思维方式不一定适用。这个想法实际上是为极端用户设计的,所以,如果可以解决在人群分布中计端的那部分人的需求,那么你的设计就能适用于大多数人的需求。

  它不是简单的好或坏的产品,例如,如果回到10年前,很多人喜欢使用的产品,像诺基亚这样的基本款手机 ,你问他们“如果未来我们可以设计的话,你希望你的手机有什么功能?”人们不会说, “哦,我想要一个纯平的屏幕,可以下载应用程序进行电脑编程。”当你只问他们“哦,除了这些你还想要什么?”人们是给不了你答案的。这不是那么简单。

  它真的需要心理学,或者说是深度的同理心理解他们的故事,动机,愿望,梦想和恐惧,所有这些。所以在某种程度上,我在想,要成为一个真正好的设计师,你真的需要使用心理学和理解心理学,很深刻地那种理解。

  (附英文版:

  Well you know, design thinking is an intended for designing for one person at a time, but obviously that dose really not work when you designing for products。 The idea really is to design for an extreme users, so, if can solve for some persons that is on the far end of the spectrums, you will glean insides that apply to a lot of other people。

  And it‘s not as simple as good or bad of product, for example, a lot of people like to use, if you would go back to the 10 years in the past, and interview someone about their cellphones,for us like Nokia, basic cellphone, and you ask them, “ what do you want at your cellphone? You know in the future, we can design it in。” People would not said, “ oh I want a flat screen, programmable computer with download the applications.people don’t give you the answer of, you know the question you can just say ”oh, what would you like out of this。“ It is not so simple as that。

  It really takes psychology, or just deep empathy, and understanding the story, the motivations, the wishes, the dreams, and the fears, all of those。 So in some way, to be a really good designer to use as I am thinking, you really need to use psychology and understanding。 Pretty deeply to get that kind of input。)

  叶壮:在接受我们的采访之前,Michael已经做了20年艺术家、雕刻家、设计师、教师——每一个工作都在向他的大脑索要灵感与创意。对很多人来说,长期思考,创意似乎总有需要“充值”的时候,我们怎么才能做到延缓灵感迸现的半衰期呢?

  Michael:嗯,我想如果你要成为一个创新者,你的首要任务应该是了解你的受众,因为,你可以设计出很惊艳的产品和创意。但是假设这样的产品和创意没有打动你的受众,那也是没用的。所以我会说,与受众的一致性沟通是关键要素之一。甚至在你跟他们谈话后,你回去,你创造什么,你想与他们分享,并再次获得反馈 ,如此反复。它真的是一种元素,重要的元素去和你的受众交流沟通、并获得相应的反馈我认为我的灵感来自于我对这个世界的一种温和的不满意, 我认为事情可以变得更好。

  所以当我看到我真的很喜欢的东西的时候,我会说“哇,太棒了”。 “哦,不是特别好”或者你知道,一种欢快的玩世不恭的态度说 “总是还有进步的空间”。总有一些人会超越常规去思考,就像你看一样东西,例如像钢笔这样简单的物品被描述为类似“左利手(左撇子)的人使用时好用吗?”我不知道,但我希望如此。你知道,总有那么一些超越常规去思考的人,而我总是成为他们其中的一员。想法总是奇怪,疯狂,而又与众不同的,我的头脑总是在思考哦,灵感来了,但是,它能更多吗?因为,它总是能变得更多。

  (附英文版:

  Well, I think if you gonna be an innovator, your first priority should be understand the audience that you designing for。,Coz anything else, you can design amazing products, ideas, but if it doesn‘t hit your audience, it’s not really useful。 So I would say that having a consistent conversation with your audience is one of the key elements, to even after you talk to them, you go back, you create something, you wanna share with them, and get the feedback, again, and again, and it is really a sort of element, the key element that I am thinking is having a conversation and the feedback with your audience。 I think my inspiration comes from a mildly dissatisfied view of how the world is, and the sense that I think, things can be better。

  So when I see something I really like, I would say “ wow, that‘s great。” “ Oh, it doesn’t good at”, or you know, or happy Cynicism is a way to put as that “there’s always room for improvement。” There’s always somebody outside of the norm that has needs that but being bad.You know you look at something, as simple as the pen, there was been described, like “Did I work for people with left handed?” I don’t know, but I hope so.You know, there’s just thinking outside of what the general population think of。 So I always just to be one of those people, that‘s either weird, crazy, different, but my minds always working at “oh, that’s inspirate, but, isn’t it more? coz, it is always more。”)

  叶壮:作为一名教人学会“创新”的教师,Michael接触过很多想在这个领域一展风采的年轻人。可是并非每个人都才华横溢,“创新”这种心理上的能力,到底能不能学会呢?还是一生下来就决定了呢?

  Michael:我认为创新能力是可以后天培养的。我的意思是,我认为肯定有人在视觉设计方面特别有天赋,比如说事物是如何组合在一起的,而另一些人在预测和计划用户的体验方面非常有天分但是他们却几乎没有什么实践的经验

  所以有时候你会努力让他们学习基本功,所以他们继续学习,我相信他们可以通过学习达到超过他们想象的程度。 每个人都不一样,有时你只是教人们欣赏他们真正的擅长的部分。

  无论哪种方式,设计都可以说是“适用于一切事物”的。斯坦福有一个非常有趣的课程叫做《设计你的生活》,这是一门关于如何最好地利用你的学习经验的课程。所以你可能不是一个设计师,但你可能会使用设计师的技术,以最大限度地利用你的教育经历,比如说如何成为一名更好的会计,等等。设计中就是有这种令人难以置信的普遍适用的元素。

  (附英文版:

  I think it can be taught, I mean I think that there are definitely people that have the nat。 sense of visual design of how things are put together, other people that are very talented in anticipating and planning how people would experience things, but the people that don‘t have that probably have zero or very little experience with it。

  So you are sometime striving people that learning the very basic, so they continue on, and I believe that they can learn to a great extent than they would imagine and everybody is different, and sometime you just teach people to appreciate what other people are really good at。

  Either way, the design might said “can be apply to everything”。 Stanford has a very amazing class called Designing Your Life, and it‘s all about how to make you most out of your school experience。 So you may not be a designer, but you might use the designer techniques to get most out of your education, and most out of being an accountant, whatever is。 There are the elements that are incredibly useful universally。 )

  叶壮:在中国,做一名搞创意搞设计的人,永远逃不掉客户的频繁要求甚至无理苛责——毕竟人家掏钱了嘛。所以总要有些“甲方虐我千百遍,我待甲方如初恋”的劲头。我们拿出一个自己当孩子看的作品,人家却全然看不上眼,心伤的稀碎稀碎的,要是您,您怎么办?

  Michael:我认为每个人都会遇到这种情况,我想首先,你需要更加明确客户对你的设计的期待。我可以告诉你一个引人入胜的故事,然后告诉你一些如何让这个公司更有创意的见解或改变一些产品设计元素,可是最终他们却说“哦,我们只是想要创意,我们不想改变任何东西”,这是一种很滑稽的情况。

  但我想,对于刚刚你提的问题,如果有人不喜欢你的设计,可你在这上面花了几个小时的时间,你可能等了太长时间来展示这个创意,可能关于这个原型的概念就是一个低效率的原型。相比较来说,如果你说“这就是我们为你创造的完美的设计,是不是很了不起? ”他们的回答就是“是的,或者不是”。

  相反的,如果你在实施设计之前,花半小时的时间与对方充分沟通你的设计雏形,那么这时候对方再跟你说他不喜欢这个想法(你也还有调整的空间),这样你才能更好地拓展和实施你的设计理念(而不是不沟通就先给对方你的设计稿)。

  很多创意公司和设计师,在他们与其他人分享他的设计雏形之前对自己的想法评价过高了。还有一个不错的例子,就是关于美国的汽车工业,在70年代时候,TOYOTA 开始占领了主要的汽车工业市场,那么这时候美国的汽车工业发生了什么事呢?

  美国汽车工业也开始发现在设计制造产品的过程中,他们越是早进行沟通进程,工业中的设计师们就会设计出一些让建造者们更容易得心应手设计。然后在接下来的美国社会里面,就慢慢的形成了一个“设计师们在做具体设计前做雏形模型的设计”,这样的产品更容易符合客户的需要。

  我的意思是,这就是作为一个艺术家或者设计师之间的区别,当然这两个都是我的职业。作为一个艺术家,你热爱你的工作并更多的通过你的工作来表达你自己。然而很多设计师可能需要切断表达自己和满足自己需要的那个部分。就是说,你可能需要放弃自己的理念,尽可能地去满足对方的需要。设计就好比是送礼物(以取悦对方为准)而不是自由表达自己的理念。

  (附英文版:

  I think that happens to everybody, of cause,I think first of all, clearer expectation from your designing who is having you to do something, I mean I can tell you a story that people want me to come in, and give them the insights of how to make more innovative for the company, or change something in their product design elements and then they will just say “oh, we just want the innovator, we don‘t want to change anything。”, which is, you know, a kind of humorous。

  But I think, to more your question,if someone doesn‘t like your design that you spent hours and hours on it, you probably waited way too long to show the idea, and the concept of the prototype is a low rate prototype, is something that instead of saying “Here is the perfect object we created for you, isn’t amazing?” And they go “ yes, or no”。 Versus, here has something we wiped up about an half hour but I tell you a story, here you put your hand, play with it and tell them you don’t like about it。 It is much more useful of an insight and then put more time than I think。

  A lot of companies, and people, they fall in love with a product or the idea too much before they share with other people.And so is another great example is that an automobile industry, the huge study of the united states around。“what happens to the US automobile industry when Toyota like a sort of 70‘s took off。”

  They found that the designer in the manufactures started speaking sooner in the process, so they would design something and talk to the guys to build it much sooner and then the united states, they design, an d make it a plan that they have built, like coming in a process much later, So as an client and as a designer, the sooner you can share your ideas, and get the feedback, and the more time you can do that, the better your chances of satisfying your clients needs are。

  Well I mean it is the difference between being a artist or a designer, and I have been both。 and as an artist, you can get you work cause you like it and its for you and your personal expression。 And I think a lot of designers cut off that and think that their designs needs satisfy their own needs。 But really, it’s giving up what you want fully using your ability and your passions to satisfy someone else, which is much about giving a gift than creating something about yourself。

2020年09月24日
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